Inclusive Education in ASEAN: Fostering Belonging for Students with Disabilities

"Inclusive Education in ASEAN: Fostering Belonging for Students with Disabilities

Even before the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, students with disabilities faced barriers in accessing quality education, with many excluded from education programs altogether.

During the pandemic, enrolment of students with disabilities fell. Of the nearly 240 million students with disabilities worldwide, 40% are more likely to have never attended school, 47% were more likely to be out of primary school, 33% out of lower-secondary school, and 27% out of upper-secondary school, according to data from the United Nations Children’s Fund. The numbers are staggering and must be tackled if countries are to make an equitable and inclusive post-COVID-19 recovery.

This study analyzes the inclusive education landscape in ASEAN amid the pandemic and provides policy recommendations to improve inclusive education systems in the region.


  • Executive Summary
  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1 International Commitments and Frameworks
  • Chapter 2 Commitments and Frameworks in ASEAN and East Asia
  • Chapter 3 Inclusive Education for Persons with Disabilities
  • Chapter 4 Country Reports
  • Chapter 5 Key Findings, Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities
  • Chapter 6 Cross-Cutting Recommendations and Framework for Action

Published June 2022.
Source: Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia

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