Compulsory Kindergarten Education and Early-Teenage Literacy in the Philippines
Early-childhood interventions are important in the development of children and have important implications in later-life outcomes. Pre-primary school participation, in particular, has been documented as a cost-effective way to improve learning, with impacts extending into adulthood.
This paper assesses the impact of compulsory kindergarten education on early-teenage basic and functional literacy skills achievement using a large-scale natural experiment in the Philippines.
Published May 2023.
Source: Asian Development Bank Institute
- Compulsory Kindergarten Education in the Philippines
- Empirical Strategy