Compulsory Kindergarten Education and Early-Teenage Literacy in the Philippines


Early-childhood interventions are important in the development of children and have important implications in later-life outcomes. Pre-primary school participation, in particular, has been documented as a cost-effective way to improve learning, with impacts extending into adulthood.

This paper assesses the impact of compulsory kindergarten education on early-teenage basic and functional literacy skills achievement using a large-scale natural experiment in the Philippines. 

Published May 2023.
Source: Asian Development Bank Institute


  • Introduction
  • Compulsory Kindergarten Education in the Philippines
  • Data
  • Empirical Strategy
  • Results
  • Conclusion

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